When the Santa Fe rail line opened in 1887 it began carrying large volumes of Texas livestock to pastures in northern Indian Territory and southern Kansas. Oklahoma Station served the Sac and Fox, Kickapoo, Cheyenne, Arapahoe, Kiowa and Comanche Indian agencies, as well as the Fort Reno military post. As described by historian Berlin Chapman, "Indian freight amounted to about a million pounds a month, some of it being hauled by [horse-drawn wagons or] freighters a hundred miles [from the station]. In 1888 a thousand carloads of cattle were shipped from the station. Outgoing freight included a carload or two of buffalo horns, and a number of carloads of bones of cattle and buffalo gathered by enterprising nesters [or squatters]", some of whom were rounded up by cavalry from Fort Reno and deported as intruders.